Medicine · Pharmacology

Respiratory Tract Infection: A Focus on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is considered as one of the most important public health problems in developing countries. Respiratory infections that occur in upper respiratory tract are seen with great frequency in both children and adults. RTIs are common cold, sore throat, sinusitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, earache, and otitis media. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are general illnesses that are often treated with antibiotics even though bacteria cause only 25% of cases. Transmission of organisms causing URTIs occurs by droplet, aerosol, or direct hand-to-hand contact with infected secretions, with consequent passage to the eyes or nose. Patients with acute sinusitis experience symptoms for more than 1 to 2 weeks after a common cold, including extreme purulent nasal discharge, maxillary toothache, headache, and joint facial pain. Staphylococcus aureus has revealed a disconcerting propensity to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents and has become an important dispute for the clinicians. Improper prescribing of antibiotics for URTIs is a leading cause of antibiotic resistance in common community-acquired pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Knowledge of the prevalent organisms and their current sensitivity is of great help in choosing an antibacterial.

Authors: Lomati Venkata Pavan Kumar Reddy*, Chirlu Venkata Raja

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