Medicine

Effects of Smoking on Respiratory System

ABSTRACT

Smoking is whispered to exacerbate respiratory diseases by harming respiratory defense mechanisms. Specifically, smoking damages mucociliary function, which impairs clearance of inhaled substances even in smokers who have no respiratory symptoms promotes bacterial adherence to airway epithelial cells. The devastating health impact of cigarette smoking is well known, Cigarette and its components produce structural changes in the respiratory tract include peri-bronchiolar inflammation and fibrosis, augmented mucosal permeability, destruction of the mucociliary clearance, changes in pathogen adherence, and interruption of the respiratory epithelium. Components of cigarette smoke, including acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrolein, free radicals formed from chemical reactions within the cigarette smoke, and nitric oxide which add to the observed structural alterations in the airway epithelial cells. Smoke directly compromises the integrity of this physical obstruction, augments the permeability of the epithelium and impairs mucociliary clearance. Cigarette smoke has been shown to affect a wide range of host defense mechanisms. Smoking appears to be a risk factor for the acquisition of a number of different pulmonary infections. This link is likely mediated by smoking’s adverse effects on respiratory defenses. The truth that smokers have revealed to be less likely than nonsmokers to undergo vaccination and yet are probably at higher risk for influenzal and pneumococcal infections highlights the importance of targeting this group for vaccination. Physicians should educate their smoking patients about their increased risk of infections, the significance of suitable vaccinations, and the profit of smoking termination.

 

Authors: Lomati Venkata Pavan Kumar Reddy, Languluri Reddenna*

 

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